Sierra Wireless EM7345 4G LTE

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Sierra Wireless EM7345 4G LTE

Vincent Bernat
Hi!

I am trying to make the LTE modem shipped with the second gen carbon X1
works. I have found the following thread saying that it should work:
 http://linux-thinkpad.10952.n7.nabble.com/2nd-gen-X1-carbon-3g-lte-Sierra-Wireless-EM7345-4G-LTE-td21094.html

However, I am unable to get any /dev/cdc* device.

[ 9358.677017] cdc_ncm 1-4:1.0: MAC-Address: ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
[ 9358.677860] cdc_ncm 1-4:1.0 usb0: register 'cdc_ncm' at usb-0000:00:14.0-4, CDC NCM, ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
[ 9358.678148] usbcore: registered new interface driver cdc_ncm
[ 9358.679842] usbcore: registered new interface driver cdc_wdm
[ 9358.680771] usbcore: registered new interface driver cdc_mbim

Linux zoro 3.15-rc8-amd64 #1 SMP Debian 3.15~rc8-1~exp1 (2014-06-03) x86_64 GNU/Linux

So, I suppose the problem is that cdc_ncm kicks first. How can I switch
to another mode? I have the usb0 interface:

8: usb0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 qdisc noop state DOWN mode DEFAULT group default qlen 1000
    link/ether ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff

Thanks!
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Re: Sierra Wireless EM7345 4G LTE

Vincent Bernat
 ❦ 18 juin 2014 01:31 +0200, Vincent Bernat <[hidden email]> :

> I am trying to make the LTE modem shipped with the second gen carbon X1
> works. I have found the following thread saying that it should work:
>  http://linux-thinkpad.10952.n7.nabble.com/2nd-gen-X1-carbon-3g-lte-Sierra-Wireless-EM7345-4G-LTE-td21094.html
>
> However, I am unable to get any /dev/cdc* device.
>
> [ 9358.677017] cdc_ncm 1-4:1.0: MAC-Address: ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
> [ 9358.677860] cdc_ncm 1-4:1.0 usb0: register 'cdc_ncm' at usb-0000:00:14 .0-4, CDC NCM, ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
> [ 9358.678148] usbcore: registered new interface driver cdc_ncm
> [ 9358.679842] usbcore: registered new interface driver cdc_wdm
> [ 9358.680771] usbcore: registered new interface driver cdc_mbim
>
> Linux zoro 3.15-rc8-amd64 #1 SMP Debian 3.15~rc8-1~exp1 (2014-06-03) x86_64 GNU/Linux
>
> So, I suppose the problem is that cdc_ncm kicks first. How can I switch
> to another mode? I have the usb0 interface:
>
> 8: usb0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 qdisc noop state DOWN mode DEFAULT group default qlen 1000
>     link/ether ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff

After some digging, I have discovered that I can load cdc_ncm with
"prefer_mbim=Y". I get a /dev/cdc-wdm1 device and Modem Manager is able
to setup the connection without a problem!
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Re: Sierra Wireless EM7345 4G LTE

Bjørn Mork
Vincent Bernat <[hidden email]> writes:

>  ❦ 18 juin 2014 01:31 +0200, Vincent Bernat <[hidden email]> :
>
>> I am trying to make the LTE modem shipped with the second gen carbon X1
>> works. I have found the following thread saying that it should work:
>>  http://linux-thinkpad.10952.n7.nabble.com/2nd-gen-X1-carbon-3g-lte-Sierra-Wireless-EM7345-4G-LTE-td21094.html
>>
>> However, I am unable to get any /dev/cdc* device.
>>
>> [ 9358.677017] cdc_ncm 1-4:1.0: MAC-Address: ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
>> [ 9358.677860] cdc_ncm 1-4:1.0 usb0: register 'cdc_ncm' at usb-0000:00:14 .0-4, CDC NCM, ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
>> [ 9358.678148] usbcore: registered new interface driver cdc_ncm
>> [ 9358.679842] usbcore: registered new interface driver cdc_wdm
>> [ 9358.680771] usbcore: registered new interface driver cdc_mbim
>>
>> Linux zoro 3.15-rc8-amd64 #1 SMP Debian 3.15~rc8-1~exp1 (2014-06-03) x86_64 GNU/Linux
>>
>> So, I suppose the problem is that cdc_ncm kicks first. How can I switch
>> to another mode? I have the usb0 interface:
>>
>> 8: usb0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 qdisc noop state DOWN mode DEFAULT group default qlen 1000
>>     link/ether ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
>
> After some digging, I have discovered that I can load cdc_ncm with
> "prefer_mbim=Y". I get a /dev/cdc-wdm1 device and Modem Manager is able
> to setup the connection without a problem!

Yes, I haven't found any way to use this modem in NCM mode, and my
current theory is that this mode is not supported despite being
"announced" by the firmware.  This theory is supported by the fact that
Lenovo provide an MBIM driver for older Windows versions where MBIM
isn't natively supported.

So "prefer_mbim=Y" is definitely the answer for this particular modem.

I must admit that I did not anticipate a situation like this when adding
that module option. So that's why it is a global module option instead
of something you can configure per device.  But I'm hoping that won't
cause problems for anyone.


Bjørn
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Re: Sierra Wireless EM7345 4G LTE

Vincent Bernat
 ❦ 18 juin 2014 10:30 +0200, Bjørn Mork <[hidden email]> :

>> After some digging, I have discovered that I can load cdc_ncm with
>> "prefer_mbim=Y". I get a /dev/cdc-wdm1 device and Modem Manager is able
>> to setup the connection without a problem!
>
> Yes, I haven't found any way to use this modem in NCM mode, and my
> current theory is that this mode is not supported despite being
> "announced" by the firmware.  This theory is supported by the fact that
> Lenovo provide an MBIM driver for older Windows versions where MBIM
> isn't natively supported.
>
> So "prefer_mbim=Y" is definitely the answer for this particular modem.
>
> I must admit that I did not anticipate a situation like this when adding
> that module option. So that's why it is a global module option instead
> of something you can configure per device.  But I'm hoping that won't
> cause problems for anyone.

I have also noticed that on resume, the cdc_acm module seems to think
there is a problem:

[69937.127857] cdc_mbim 2-4:1.0: cdc-wdm1: USB WDM device
[69937.128063] cdc_mbim 2-4:1.0 wwan0: register 'cdc_mbim' at usb-0000:00:14.0-4, CDC MBIM, 52:ce:08:1e:a7:19
[69937.129148] cdc_acm 2-4:1.2: This device cannot do calls on its own. It is not a modem.
[69937.129188] cdc_acm 2-4:1.2: ttyACM0: USB ACM device

I have to unload cdc_acm and cdc_mbim and load cdc_mbim. I'll try to
blacklist cdc_acm to see if there is some enhancement on this front.
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Re: Sierra Wireless EM7345 4G LTE

Bjørn Mork
Vincent Bernat <[hidden email]> writes:

> I have also noticed that on resume, the cdc_acm module seems to think
> there is a problem:
>
> [69937.127857] cdc_mbim 2-4:1.0: cdc-wdm1: USB WDM device
> [69937.128063] cdc_mbim 2-4:1.0 wwan0: register 'cdc_mbim' at usb-0000:00:14.0-4, CDC MBIM, 52:ce:08:1e:a7:19
> [69937.129148] cdc_acm 2-4:1.2: This device cannot do calls on its own. It is not a modem.
> [69937.129188] cdc_acm 2-4:1.2: ttyACM0: USB ACM device
>
> I have to unload cdc_acm and cdc_mbim and load cdc_mbim. I'll try to
> blacklist cdc_acm to see if there is some enhancement on this front.

That message is not really an error.  It just means what it says
(referring to the ttyACM0 device, not the whole composite device which
of course is a modem).  I believe the ACM function is there as a GPS
NMEA(?) output. But I have no idea how to enable it.  Any hints are
appreciated.  Maybe someone with Windows could try to enable the GPS (if
the Windows drivers/software support this?) and snoop on the
communication?


Anyway, back to the message.  If you do "lsusb -vd 1199:a001" you'll see
this part:


    Interface Descriptor:
      bLength                 9
      bDescriptorType         4
      bInterfaceNumber        2
      bAlternateSetting       0
      bNumEndpoints           1
      bInterfaceClass         2 Communications
      bInterfaceSubClass      2 Abstract (modem)
      bInterfaceProtocol      1 AT-commands (v.25ter)
      iInterface             12
      CDC Header:
        bcdCDC               1.20
      CDC Union:
        bMasterInterface        2
        bSlaveInterface         3
      CDC Call Management:
        bmCapabilities       0x00
        bDataInterface          3
      CDC ACM:
        bmCapabilities       0x07
          sends break
          line coding and serial state
          get/set/clear comm features


And looking at the cdc-acm driver, the message appears when one of or
both of the two lowest bits of the bmCapabilities field in the CDC Call
Management functional descriptor are cleared:

                case USB_CDC_CALL_MANAGEMENT_TYPE:
                        call_management_function = buffer[3];
                        call_interface_num = buffer[4];
                        if ((quirks & NOT_A_MODEM) == 0 && (call_management_function & 3) != 3)
                                dev_err(&intf->dev, "This device cannot do calls on its own. It is not a modem.\n");
                        break;


This bit field is described like this in the CDC PSTN (sic) spec, table 3:

 The capabilities that this configuration supports:
 D7..D2: RESERVED (Reset to zero)

 D1: 0 - Device sends/receives call management information only over the
         Communications Class interface.
     1 - Device can send/receive call management information over a Data
         Class interface.
 D0: 0 - Device does not handle call management itself.
     1 - Device handles call management itself.

 The previous bits, in combination, identify which call management
 scenario is used. If bit D0 is reset to 0, then the value of bit D1 is
 ignored. In this case, bit D1 is reset to zero for future
 compatibility.


So all the descriptor and driver message means is that you cannot use
the ttyACM0 device for call management.  Which you do not want to do
either.  You'll use the CDC MBIM function for that.

The message appears after resume because the power to the internal modem
slot is cut off during suspend, so the modem will boot and be discovered
as a "new" device on enry resume.  I personally find this a bit
annoying, but there isn't much we can do about it.  It is part of the
laptop design and the way all Thinkpads with internal modem slots behave
AFAIK.


Bjørn
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Re: Sierra Wireless EM7345 4G LTE

Nikos Alexandris
In reply to this post by Bjørn Mork
[previous msgs erased]

Following this, and other related threads, helped me in getting started
with the mobile broadband modem of interest (Sierra EM7345 [0]). After
finally having access to (a Gentoo/Funtoo e-build for) libmbim ver. 1.10
(which is higher or equal to 1.8, as suggested in past communication in
this mailing list), I went on to test.

- First, I have inserted a valid SIM card.

- Second, I followed the advise to unload the cdc_ncm module and reload
with the parameter "prefer_mbim=Y". Indeed, the parameter was set to
"N". One can query this directly via `cat
/sys/module/cdc_ncm/parameters/prefer_mbim`. So the steps were

rmmod cdc_mbim # otherwise ncm can't be removed
rmmod cdc_ncm
modprobe cdc_ncm prefer_mbim=Y
modprobe cdc_mbim
rmmod cdc_acm # as suggested in this thread as well

- Next, I could query the device "/dev/cdc-wdm1", which, if I am not
wrong, did not exist previously.

mbimcli -d /dev/cdc-wdm1 --query-radio-state

gave an "off" Software Radio State. Turning this on via

mbimcli -d /dev/cdc-wdm1 --set-radio-state=on

gave access to alll kinds of queries. Everything works fine, for
example:

mbimcli -d /dev/cdc-wdm1 --query-device-caps

[/dev/cdc-wdm1] Device capabilities retrieved:
               Device type: 'embedded'
            Cellular class: 'gsm'
               Voice class: 'no-voice'
                 Sim class: 'removable'
                Data class: 'gprs, edge, umts, hsdpa, hsupa, lte'
                  SMS caps: 'pdu-receive, pdu-send'
                 Ctrl caps: 'reg-manual'
              Max sessions: '8'
         Custom data class: 'unknown'
                 Device ID: '013937000389096'
             Firmware info: 'FIH7160_V1.1_MODEM_01.1349.12'
             Hardware info: 'XMM7160_V1.1_MBIM_GNSS_NAND_RE'


All of the following return something useful:

mbimcli -d /dev/cdc-wdm1 --query-device-caps
mbimcli -d /dev/cdc-wdm1 --query-subscriber-ready-status
mbimcli -d /dev/cdc-wdm1 --query-radio-state
mbimcli -d /dev/cdc-wdm1 --query-device-services
mbimcli -d /dev/cdc-wdm1 --query-pin-state
mbimcli -d /dev/cdc-wdm1 --query-home-provider
mbimcli -d /dev/cdc-wdm1 --query-preferred-providers
mbimcli -d /dev/cdc-wdm1 --query-visible-providers
mbimcli -d /dev/cdc-wdm1 --query-signal-state
mbimcli -d /dev/cdc-wdm1 --query-packet-service-state
mbimcli -d /dev/cdc-wdm1 --query-connection-state
mbimcli -d /dev/cdc-wdm1 --query-packet-statistics
mbimcli -d /dev/cdc-wdm1 --phonebook-query-configuration


I am unsure on how to proceed for an actual connection, as well as
testing GPS capabilities, though.
Thanks for the useful hints/instructions in previous posts.

Nikos
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[0]
<http://www.sierrawireless.com/productsandservices/AirPrime_Wireless_Modules/Essential_Modules/~/media/Data%20Sheet/AirPrime_datasheets/Sierra_Wireless_AirPrime_EM_Series.ashx>,
note: "official" Linux support ticked in this datasheet!


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Re: Sierra Wireless EM7345 4G LTE

Nikos Alexandris
On 08.10.2014 09:48, Nikos Alexandris wrote:

> Following this, and other related threads, helped me in getting
> started with the mobile broadband modem of interest (Sierra EM7345
> [0]). After finally having access to (a Gentoo/Funtoo e-build for)
> libmbim ver. 1.10 (which is higher or equal to 1.8, as suggested in
> past communication in this mailing list), I went on to test.

[..]

> I am unsure on how to proceed for an actual connection, as well as
> testing GPS capabilities, though.
> Thanks for the useful hints/instructions in previous posts.

It works! `mmcli -m 0 --simple-connect=pin=1234,apn=yourapn` ends up in
a successful connection :-)

How about the GPS? Anybody tried it out using gpsd?

Nikos
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Re: Sierra Wireless EM7345 4G LTE

Bjørn Mork
Nikos Alexandris <[hidden email]> writes:

> It works! `mmcli -m 0 --simple-connect=pin=1234,apn=yourapn` ends up
> in a successful connection :-)
>
> How about the GPS? Anybody tried it out using gpsd?

I believe the EM7345 GPS is supposed to use the /dev/ttyACMx serial
function (if you have that?), but I don't know how to enable it.  I
assume it will be similar to older Infineon modems (the EM7345 use an
Intel XMM7160 chipset which is based on technology Intel acquired from
Infineon).  So if anyone has an idea about how to enable GPS output on
Infineon modems, then that will be helpful.

Another option is of course snooping on Windows.  So if you have a
Windows dualboot setup and the GPS is available in Windows, then try
snooping there while enabling/disabling the GPS. I suggest using USBPcap
for Windows USB snooping: http://desowin.org/usbpcap/



Bjørn
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Re: Sierra Wireless EM7345 4G LTE

Nikos Alexandris
Nikos Alexandris <[hidden email]> writes:

>> It works! `mmcli -m 0 --simple-connect=pin=1234,apn=yourapn` ends up
>> in a successful connection :-)

What remains is to understand how to load the module of interest with
the specified parameter at boot. And, initialise the ModemManager deamon
as well (i.e. use rc to add it in the default runlevel?). Otherwise it
takes manual work everytime.

>> How about the GPS? Anybody tried it out using gpsd?

On 08.10.2014 11:49, Bjørn Mork wrote:

> I believe the EM7345 GPS is supposed to use the /dev/ttyACMx serial
> function (if you have that?), but I don't know how to enable it.  I
> assume it will be similar to older Infineon modems (the EM7345 use an
> Intel XMM7160 chipset which is based on technology Intel acquired
> from
> Infineon).  So if anyone has an idea about how to enable GPS output
> on
> Infineon modems, then that will be helpful.\

I can't find any useful info with a quick search on the net (infineon,
modem, gps, linux) :-?

> Another option is of course snooping on Windows.  So if you have a
> Windows dualboot setup and the GPS is available in Windows, then try
> snooping there while enabling/disabling the GPS. I suggest using
> USBPcap
> for Windows USB snooping: http://desowin.org/usbpcap/

Kinda off-topic, but I have currently Gentoo on my box and kept all
original partitions safe elsewhere. That is I can't boot into Windows.
It would be great if I could do this:
<http://superuser.com/q/806154/128768>.

Nikos
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Re: Sierra Wireless EM7345 4G LTE

Bjørn Mork
Nikos Alexandris <[hidden email]> writes:
> Nikos Alexandris <[hidden email]> writes:
>
>>> It works! `mmcli -m 0 --simple-connect=pin=1234,apn=yourapn` ends up
>>> in a successful connection :-)
>
> What remains is to understand how to load the module of interest with
> the specified parameter at boot.

I use a /etc/modprobe.d/foo.conf file with

 # overriding Debian default
 options cdc_ncm prefer_mbim=Y

for this.  It's a bit unfortunate that this is necessary, but I don't
know how to otherwise solve the problem.

As explained earlier, I really did not anticipate the situation caused
by the EM7345 when initially recommending the 'prefer_mbim=N' distro
default.  I expected any device claiming to be NCM+MBIM capable to
actually support NCM...

> And, initialise the ModemManager
> deamon as well (i.e. use rc to add it in the default
> runlevel?). Otherwise it takes manual work everytime.

Normally MM will be started as a d-bus service by NetworkManager.
But starting it from an init script should also work if you prefer that
for whatever reasons.


Bjørn
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Re: Sierra Wireless EM7345 4G LTE

Luca Fornasari
In reply to this post by Vincent Bernat
On 08.10.2014 10:41, Nikos Alexandris wrote:

[..]

> It works! `mmcli -m 0 --simple-connect=pin=1234,apn=yourapn` ends up in 
> a successful connection :-)

Hi, I'm trying to use the Sierra Wireless EM7345 4G LTE ... 
Can you or Bjørn sum up what kernel version and libmbim should be used?
I understand the module cdc_ncm has to be loaded with "prefer_mbim=Y" but I'm a bit lost understanding what kernel and library should be used.

Thanks in advance
Luca Fornasari
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Re: Sierra Wireless EM7345 4G LTE

Bjørn Mork
Luca Fornasari <[hidden email]> writes:

> On 08.10.2014 10:41, Nikos Alexandris wrote:
>
> [..]
>> It works! `mmcli -m 0 --simple-connect=pin=1234,apn=yourapn` ends up in
>> a successful connection :-)
>
> Hi, I'm trying to use the Sierra Wireless EM7345 4G LTE ...
> Can you or Bjørn sum up what kernel version and libmbim should be used?
>
> I understand the module cdc_ncm has to be loaded with "prefer_mbim=Y"
> but I'm a bit lost understanding what kernel and library should be
> used.

I believe any released version should work.  But I haven't actually
tested any of the older driver or libmbim versions, so I could be
wrong... There have been a number of fixes and features added over time,
before anyone ever tested an EM7345.

If you want a tested reference, then the current Debian "jessie"
versions are good. I am using an EM7345 successfully with these
packages:

bjorn@nemi:~$ apt-cache policy modemmanager
modemmanager:
  Installed: 1.4.0-1
  Candidate: 1.4.0-1
  Version table:
 *** 1.4.0-1 0
        600 http://ftp.no.debian.org/debian/ sid/main amd64 Packages
        100 /var/lib/dpkg/status
     0.5.2.0-2 0
        700 http://ftp.no.debian.org/debian/ wheezy/main amd64 Packages
bjorn@nemi:~$ apt-cache policy libmbim-glib4
libmbim-glib4:
  Installed: 1.10.0-2
  Candidate: 1.10.0-2
  Version table:
 *** 1.10.0-2 0
        600 http://ftp.no.debian.org/debian/ sid/main amd64 Packages
        100 /var/lib/dpkg/status
bjorn@nemi:~$ apt-cache policy linux-image-3.16-2-amd64
linux-image-3.16-2-amd64:
  Installed: 3.16.3-2
  Candidate: 3.16.3-2
  Version table:
 *** 3.16.3-2 0
        600 http://ftp.no.debian.org/debian/ sid/main amd64 Packages
        100 /var/lib/dpkg/status



Bjørn
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Re: Sierra Wireless EM7345 4G LTE

Nikos Alexandris
On 08.10.2014 10:41, Nikos Alexandris wrote:

[..]
>>> It works! `mmcli -m 0 --simple-connect=pin=1234,apn=yourapn` ends
>>> up in
>>> a successful connection :-)


Luca Fornasari <[hidden email]> writes:

>> Hi, I'm trying to use the Sierra Wireless EM7345 4G LTE ...
>> Can you or Bjørn sum up what kernel version and libmbim should be
>> used?
>> I understand the module cdc_ncm has to be loaded with
>> "prefer_mbim=Y"
>> but I'm a bit lost understanding what kernel and library should be
>> used.

I use the same versions (as mentioned below) under Funtoo (3.16.2-3
Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-4600U CPU @ 2.10GHz GenuineIntel). Nothing to add
(from an end-user perspective) besides than loading the "cdc_ncm"
module, with the parameter of interest, during the boot process, might
slow-down quite a bit the overall boot experience.

Not sure, maybe some kind of a script that would work on-demand, would
perform better (i.e. won't slow-down booting).


On 10.10.2014 16:30, Bjørn Mork wrote:

> I believe any released version should work.  But I haven't actually
> tested any of the older driver or libmbim versions, so I could be
> wrong... There have been a number of fixes and features added over
> time,
> before anyone ever tested an EM7345.
>
> If you want a tested reference, then the current Debian "jessie"
> versions are good. I am using an EM7345 successfully with these
> packages:
>
> bjorn@nemi:~$ apt-cache policy modemmanager
> modemmanager:
>   Installed: 1.4.0-1
>   Candidate: 1.4.0-1
>   Version table:
>  *** 1.4.0-1 0
>         600 http://ftp.no.debian.org/debian/ sid/main amd64 Packages
>         100 /var/lib/dpkg/status
>      0.5.2.0-2 0
>         700 http://ftp.no.debian.org/debian/ wheezy/main amd64
> Packages
> bjorn@nemi:~$ apt-cache policy libmbim-glib4
> libmbim-glib4:
>   Installed: 1.10.0-2
>   Candidate: 1.10.0-2
>   Version table:
>  *** 1.10.0-2 0
>         600 http://ftp.no.debian.org/debian/ sid/main amd64 Packages
>         100 /var/lib/dpkg/status
> bjorn@nemi:~$ apt-cache policy linux-image-3.16-2-amd64
> linux-image-3.16-2-amd64:
>   Installed: 3.16.3-2
>   Candidate: 3.16.3-2
>   Version table:
>  *** 3.16.3-2 0
>         600 http://ftp.no.debian.org/debian/ sid/main amd64 Packages
>         100 /var/lib/dpkg/status

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Re: Sierra Wireless EM7345 4G LTE

Bjørn Mork
Nikos Alexandris <[hidden email]> writes:

> I use the same versions (as mentioned below) under Funtoo (3.16.2-3
> Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-4600U CPU @ 2.10GHz GenuineIntel). Nothing to add
> (from an end-user perspective) besides than loading the "cdc_ncm"
> module, with the parameter of interest, during the boot process, might
> slow-down quite a bit the overall boot experience.
>
> Not sure, maybe some kind of a script that would work on-demand, would
> perform better (i.e. won't slow-down booting).

Using a /etc/modprobe.d/foo.conf file to set the option won't change the
module loading. The "cdc_ncm" module is still loaded on demand.


Bjørn
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